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Nitric oxide (NO) is small molecule with big effects; it is hard at work in your body to keep your cells and organs functioning properly. Until recently, the only known method of increasing NO levels was to take supplemental L-Arginine. However, this route is not ideal. Not only does it require very high doses of L-arginine, it is also inefficient, especially when oxygen levels are low, like during exercise or when the heart is overly stressed in both healthy and diseased conditions.
The good news is that science has found the answer! There is another pathway to increasing NO levels. The NOx3,2,1 pathway. This pathway converts dietary nitrates into nitric oxide quickly, efficiently and under all conditions! The NOx3,2,1 family of products from Axioma harnesses the power of this revolutionary pathway; combining dietary nitrates with synergistic ingredients to meet a variety of health needs.
What's the deal with Nitrates?
Nitrates have received some bad press in the past, but the truth is that they are a safe and healthy part of your diet. In fact, some of the healthiest foods including spinach, kale and beetroot contain very high levels of nitrates! Even more importantly, the high nitrate content of these foods is part of what makes them so good for you. In fact various researchers suggest that nitrates are probably responsible for the health benefits associated with Mediterranean and Japanese diets! Recent population and toxicological studies have shown that nitrates are important nutrients with significant health benefits and without the negative effects.
The problem is that most Canadians are not consuming enough vegetables as part of their daily diet. The NOx family of products takes the health benefits of these foods to a whole new level; providing a dietary nitrate top-up in combination with other proven ingredients, all in convenient easy to take capsules.
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Innovative Delivery Based on the NOx 3,2,1 Pathway Research - Another First from AOR
- Fast delivery of NO through lozenge form
- Provides a quick boost
- Excellent addition to any supplement regime
- Great tasting, sweetened naturally
Discussion: NOx BOOSTTM contains antioxidants for the maintenance of good health.
|NPN||Product Code||Size||Per Capsule||Vegetarian|
|80021096||AOR14011||60 Lozenges||50 mg||Vegetarian|
|Serving Size: 1 Lonzenge|
|Vitamin C||50 mg|
|Non-medicinal ingredients: Fruit and vegetable juice powders (red beetroot, red raspberry, blueberry, bilberry), potassium nitrate, mannose, xanthan gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, maltodextrin, thaumatin, sodium stearyl fumarate.|
AOR Guarantees: that no ingredients not listed on the label have been added to the product. Contains no wheat, gluten, nuts, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, dairy, soy, eggs, fish, shellfish or any animal by products.
Adult Dosage: Dissolve 2 lozenges in the mouth daily, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Cautions: Do not use with erectile dysfunction-type products.
Pregnancy/Nursing: Do not take
Natural fruit and vegetable flavours
- Sports nutrition
- General health
NOx Boost Extra Info
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics.
Nitric Oxide. 2010 Feb 15;22(2):104-9.
Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Gladwin MT.
The inorganic anions nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) were previously thought to be inert end products of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. However, recent studies show that these supposedly inert anions can be recycled in vivo to form NO, representing an important alternative source of NO to the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway, in particular in hypoxic states. This Review discusses the emerging important biological functions of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, and highlights studies that implicate the therapeutic potential of nitrate and nitrite in conditions such as myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and gastric ulceration.
Dietary nitrate-good or bad?
Nitric Oxide. 2010 Feb 15;22(2):104-9.
Gilchrist M, Winyard PG, Benjamin N.
There has now been a great deal written about inorganic nitrate in both the popular press and in scientific journals. Papers in the 1970s warned us that inorganic nitrate could theoretically be metabolised in the human body to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are undoubtedly carcinogenic. More recently there is evidence that nitrate can undergo metabolic conversion to nitrite and nitric oxide and perform a useful protective function to prevent infection, protect our stomach, improve exercise performance and prevent vascular disease.
Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):1-10.
Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS.
The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization’s Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.
Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008 Apr;10(4):304-10.
Bian K, Doursout MF, Murad F.
In contrast with the short research history of the enzymatic synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), the introduction of nitrate-containing compounds for medicinal purposes marked its 150th anniversary in 1997. Glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) is the first compound of this category. On October 12, 1998, the Nobel Assembly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology to scientists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning NO as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. NO-mediated signaling is a recognized component in various physiologic processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of platelet and leukocyte aggregation, attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, neurotransmission, and immune defense), to name only a few. NO has also been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, myocarditis, colitis, and nephritis and a large number of pathologic conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Some of these processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission) require only a brief production of NO at low nanomolar concentrations and are dependent on the recruitment of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling. Other processes are associated with direct interaction of NO or reactive nitrogen species derived from it with target proteins and requires a more sustained production of NO at higher concentrations but do not involve the cGMP pathway.
Dietary polyphenols generate nitric oxide from nitrite in the stomach and induce smooth muscle relaxation.
Toxicology. 2009 Nov 9;265(1-2):41-8.
Rocha BS, Gago B, Barbosa RM, Laranjinha J.
Nitrite, considered a biological waste and toxic product, is being regarded as an important physiological molecule in nitric oxide (NO) biochemistry. Because the interaction of dietary phenolic compounds and nitrite would be kinetically (due to the high concentrations achieved) and thermodynamically (on basis of the redox potentials) feasible in the stomach, we have studied the potential reduction of nitrite by polyphenols present in several dietary sources. By measuring the time courses of NO production in simulated gastric juice (pH 2), the efficiency of the compounds studied is as follows: Epicatechin-3-O-gallate>quercetin>procyanidin B8 dimer>oleuropein>procyanidin B2 dimer>chlorogenic acid>epicatechin>catechin>procyanidin B5 dimer. The initial rates of NO production fall in a narrow range (ca. 1-5 microMs(-1)) but the distinct kinetics of the decay of NO signals suggest that competition reactions for NO are operative. The proof of concept that, in the presence of nitrite, phenol-containing dietary products induce a strong increase of NO in the stomach was established in an in vivo experiment with healthy volunteers consuming lettuce, onions, apples, wine, tea, berries and cherries. Moreover, selected mixtures of oleuropein and catechin with low nitrite (1 microM) were shown to induce muscle relaxation of stomach strips in a structure-dependent way. Data presented here brings strong support to the concept that polyphenols consumed in a variety of dietary products, under gastric conditions, reduce nitrite to NO that, in turn, may exert a biological impact as a local relaxant.
Apples increase nitric oxide production by human saliva at the acidic pH of the stomach: a new biological function for polyphenols with a catechol group?
Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 Sep 1;39(5):668-81.
Peri L, Pietraforte D, Scorza G, Napolitano A, Fogliano V, Minetti M.
Dietary inorganic nitrate is secreted in saliva and reduced to nitrite by bacterial flora. At the acidic pH of the stomach nitrite is present as nitrous acid in equilibrium with nitric oxide (NO), and other nitrogen oxides with nitrating and nitrosating activity. NO in the stomach exerts several beneficial effects, but nitrosating/nitrating species have been implicated as a possible cause of epithelial neoplasia at the gastroesophageal junction. We investigated the effects of apple extracts on NO release by human saliva at pH 2. A water extract obtained from apple homogenate increased NO release caused by acidification of saliva. Data show that polyphenols were responsible for this activity, with chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin the most active and concentrated species. However, ferulic acid, a hydroxycinnamic acid with only one aromatic hydroxyl group, did not increase NO release. Fructose, the most representative sugar in apples, was also inactive. Interestingly, ascorbic acid in saliva induced a SCN(-)-enhanced burst of NO but, unlike apple, the release was transient. The simultaneous addition of ascorbic acid and apple extract caused a burst of NO followed by the increased steady-state level characteristic of saliva containing apple extract. Chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin, but not ferulic acid, formed o-semiquinone radicals and nitrated polyphenols, suggesting the scavenging of NO(2) by o-semiquinones. Our results propose that some apple polyphenols not only inhibit nitrosation/nitration but also promote NO bio-availabilty at the gastric level, a previously unappreciated function.
The inhibition of bacterially mediated N-nitrosation by vitamin C: relevance to the inhibition of endogenous N-nitrosation in the achlorhydric stomach.
Carcinogenesis. 1989 Feb;10(2):397-9.
Mackerness CW, Leach SA, Thompson MH, Hill MJ.
It has been suggested that endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds are involved in the aetiology of gastric cancer. In the model of gastric carcinogenesis postulated by Correa, gastric atrophy is an important early stage in the progression to carcinoma which results in the loss of stomach acidity, and colonization of the stomach by bacteria. As a consequence of the metabolic activity of these bacteria intragastric nitrite (a precursor to N-nitroso compounds) and possibly carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds become elevated, which may hasten the progression to carcinoma. Vitamin C has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of acid-catalysed N-nitroso compound formation, in vivo and in vitro, and this has been attributed to its relatively rapid reaction with nitrite in contrast to the slower rates of reaction of nitrite with secondary amines. However, N-nitroso compound formation in the achlorhydric stomach must proceed by mechanisms which operate at neutral pH values. One potential mechanism involves the enzymatic catalysis of N-nitrosation by a subpopulation of the bacteria colonizing the achlorhydric stomach which catalyse these reactions and in particular denitrifying organisms. In this study, we examined the effect of vitamin C on the formation of N-nitrosomorpholine from morpholine and nitrite when mediated by cells of an actively N-nitrosating denitrifying bacterium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BM1030) at neutral pH. Despite the fact that vitamin C ordinarily shows little reactivity towards nitrite at neutral pH it did prove to be a potent inhibitor of bacterial N-nitrosamine formation. This study provides some justification for the use of vitamin C as an inhibitor of endogenous N-nitrosation regardless of gastric pH.
Tea polyphenols: prevention of cancer and optimizing health.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun; 71(6 Suppl): 1698S-702S; discussion 1703S-4S.
Mukhtar H, Ahmad N.
The tea plant Camellia sinesis is cultivated in >30 countries. Epidemiologic observations and laboratory studies have indicated that polyphenolic compounds present in tea may reduce the risk of a variety of illnesses, including cancer and coronary heart disease. Most studies involved green tea, however; only a few evaluated black tea. Results from studies in rats, mice, and hamsters showed that tea consumption protects against lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum, pancreas, liver, breast, colon, and skin cancers induced by chemical carcinogens. Other studies showed the preventive effect of green tea consumption against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, high blood cholesterol concentrations, and high blood pressure. Because the epidemiologic studies and research findings in laboratory animals have shown the chemopreventive potential of tea polyphenols in cancer, the usefulness of tea polyphenols for humans should be evaluated in clinical trials. One such phase 1 clinical trial is currently under way at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in collaboration with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. This study will examine the safety and possible efficacy of consuming the equivalent of > or =10 cups (> or =2.4 L) of green tea per day. The usefulness of tea polyphenols may be extended by combining them with other consumer products such as food items and vitamin supplements. This “designer-item” approach may be useful for human populations, but it requires further study.
NOx Boost Abstracts
Nitrate causes a dose-dependent augmentation of nitric oxide status in healthy women.
Food Funct. 2012 May;3(5):522-7.
Bondonno CP, Croft KD, Puddey IB, Considine MJ, Yang X, Ward NC, Hodgson JM.
Green leafy vegetables, high in dietary nitrate, may contribute to cardiovascular health by augmenting nitric oxide status. The exogenous enterosalivary pathway of nitrate reduction to nitrite appears to be a critical determinant of the effects of nitrate. Our primary objective was to investigate the dose-response of nitrate intake on nitric oxide status and nitrate reduction in the mouth. We also assessed whether antibacterial toothpaste can inhibit nitrate reduction and blunt subsequent increases in circulating nitric oxide. A randomised, controlled, crossover trial with healthy women (n = 16) was conducted. The acute effects of four doses of nitrate (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg, as well as 400 mg plus antibacterial toothpaste), administered in random order, were compared. Measurements included biomarkers of plasma nitric oxide status, assessed by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO) and nitrite, and a biomarker of nitrate reduction in the mouth, assessed by measuring salivary nitrite. Compared to 0 mg, all doses of nitrate resulted in higher plasma RXNO and nitrite, and salivary nitrite (P < 0.05). A linear dose-response to nitrate intake was observed with plasma RXNO and nitrite, and salivary nitrite (P < 0.001). Antibacterial toothpaste did not alter nitrate reduction in the mouth (P > 0.9) or blunt the increase in nitric oxide status (P > 0.9). Thus, our study has demonstrated that increasing nitrate intake results in a dose-related increase in nitrate reduction in the mouth and nitric oxide status, and that use of antibacterial toothpaste does not inhibit nitrate reduction or blunt increases in circulating nitric oxide.
Vnitr Lek. 2012 Oct;58(10):743-9.
[Vitamin C and its physiological role with respect to the components of the immune system].
Holmannová D, Kolá?ková M, Krejsek J.
Vitamin C is a water soluble micronutrient commonly found in our diet which orchestrates the function of both innate and adaptive immune system, influencing both cellular and humoral immune responses. Vitamin C inhibits excessive activation of the immune system to prevent tissue damage, but also supports antibacterial activity, stimulates NK cells and differentiation of Th0 subset into Th1 characterized by interferon ? production. In addition, vitamin C interferes with the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, or with the expression of adhesive molecules. Moreover, vitamin C as an antioxidat protects the immune cells against intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) formed in the inflammatory response. Vitamin C as an enzymatic cofactor is extremely important in maintaining tissue integrity, and plays a crucial role in formation of skin, epithelial and endothelial barriers.
Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate supplement but not by high-nitrate foods in older adults.
Nutr Res. 2012 Mar;32(3):160-8.
Miller GD, Marsh AP, Dove RW, Beavers D, Presley T, Helms C, Bechtold E, King SB, Kim-Shapiro D.
Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs high-nitrate diet, with and without a high-nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics and blood pressure using a randomized 4-period crossover controlled design. We hypothesized that the high-nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and lower blood pressure compared with the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were 8 normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5 ± 4.7 years old) with no overt disease or medications that affect nitric oxide metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured before and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet + supplement (P < .001 and P = .017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high-nitrate diet + supplement (P = .001 and P = .002), but not for control diet (P = .713 and P = .741) or high-nitrate diet (P = .852 and P = .500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2-hour postmeal follow-up time points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high-nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction.
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